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Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP)

1. Introduction:

Accion Fraterna is also implementing Integrated  Watershed Development Programme (IWMP) funded jointly by department  of Rural development, Govt, of India and Govt. of Andhra Pradesh.  The Govt. of India (Ministry of Rural Areas & Employment) have communicated the  “common guidelines for watershed development” in the  year 2008. As per new guidelines, each watershed covers an area of 2000 to 3000 ha, called ‘Mega Watershed’. Each mega watershed is  subdivided  into 3 to 5 micro watersheds, depending  on the number of villages/ habitations falling within  the mega watershed.

Govt. of AP has selected AF Ecology Centre as PIA to implement IWMP Watershed Program and allocated 3 mega watersheds for implementation.  They are  1. Muttala (2009-10) in Atmakur mandal 2. Bandameedapalli (2010-11) in Rapthadu mandal  3. Kuderu (2011-12) in Kuderu mandal.  Muttala  Mega watershed  is divided  in 4 micro watersheds, namely, Papampally, Muttala, Goridindla, D.K. Thanda.  Bandameedapalli mega watershed is divided  into 3 micro watershed  namely  Bandameedapalli, Yerragunta, Varimadugu.  Kuderu watershed has 5 microwatersheds  namely Kammuru, Kuderu, Antharaganga, Aravakuru, and Kadadarakunta. The period of implementation of each project is 7 years from the date of entering MOU between Govt. of AP and Accion Fraterna as PIA.

Totally an area of 11,808 Ha. is proposed for treatment in all project villages with a financial outlay of Rs. 14.17 crores.

2. Allocation of funds for various activities under IWMP:

The percentage of allocation for various components within the project outlay is as follows.

(1).Entry Point Activity: 4%, (2). DPR(Detailed Project Report) preparation: 1%, (3). Administration: 10%, (4). Capacity building(CB) 5%, (5) NRM (Natural Resource management) activities works: 56%. (6). PSI (Productivity Systems Improvement): 10%,(7). LH(Livelihoods);9%, (8). Consolidation: 3%, (9). Monitoring and Evaluation: 2%.

3. Process and formation of Watershed Development Committee:

First awareness campaigns are organized on the importance and need of watershed programmes in all the micro watershed villages. The modalities of implementing participatory watershed programme is discussed with the opinion leaders, Community Based Organisation, Gram Panchayath representatives etc.  After the village community is prepared for taking up watershed program a Grama Sabha (Village Assembly) is  conducted in each of  the micro watershed villages. The details of the programme guidelines, and procedures were explained to the villagers, emphasizing the need for conservation and sustainable management of natural resources through “ participatory watershed management”.

The Village Assembly (Gramsabha) has to select the Watershed Development Committee (WDC) members ( 13 to 15), by consensus. At the time of selection of WDC small and marginal  farmers, landless  poor to SC,ST and women are duly considered so as to involve  all sections of the village in the programme.

4. Roles & Responsibilities of W.D.C (watershed Development committee).

  1. The WDC is responsible to implement watershed development activities as per the Detailed Project Report (DRP) in a transparent process ensuring due quality in implementation and in time.
  2. The committee is  headed by  a Chair Person, (elected member from among  the committee members and by the members).
  3. The committee  meets once  in 15 days  to review  the progress of works and pass resolutions  to take  up new works,  as per the Detailed Project Report.
  4. The WDC selects, one active unemployed educated youth to work as “watershed assistant” to supervise  the implementation of works  and report to WDC & PIA periodically.
  5. The WDC undertakes the field visits periodically to ensure the quality and quantity  of works.
  6. The WDC along with V.O.(Village Organization ie., federation of women  self help groups) selects the beneficiaries,  from poor  and families under livelihood enhancement programme component of  the watershed.
  7. The WDC  & V.O. are responsible  for management of livelihood funds including the recovery  of the loans  sanctioned  to beneficiaries  under Livelihood Fund.

5. Preparation of DPR and Planning process:

A mega watershed comprises of 4 to 5 habitations or villages covering an extent of 2000 Ha. to 5000 Ha. The entire mega watershed is sub divided into micro watersheds so that the boundary of each micro watershed is coterminous with village boundary as far as possible. However, while demarcating the micro watersheds, drainage line systems, from ridge to valley approach is followed.

5.1 Planning:

In each micro watershed village, PRA(Participatory Rural Appraisal) exercise are conducted. All sections of community participated in the process of PRA exercises to know their natural and social resources through drawing of resource maps of the village.Various natural resources and social structures existing in the village were depicted in the maps. A transect walk was taken up to perambulate the area to assess the land configuration, soil types, existing vegetation etc.,.After collecting information net planning was taken up.

A team consisting of 10 local educated youth was engaged to conduct household socioeconomic survey in the formats provided and data computerized. Later survey holding wise net planning was with involvement of each farmer in order to decide the location specific interventions to be taken up to improve the productivity of rainfed farm lands. The data collected during net planning, was computerized to arrive at financial implications. Also, a plan for other livelihoods is also prepared for 5 years. A detailed project report is prepared for taking up soil and moisture conservation works, rain water harvesting structures, dry land horticulture, vegetation improvement works, etc., The unit cost of treatment per Ha. is Rs.12000/- . If the planning exceeds the total budget under IWMP, the plan outlay takes into account the MGNREGS funds to make a total watershed development plan. Thus each micro watershed development takes into account both  IWMP and MGNREGS funds.

 6. Payment system for implementation of activities :

The payment  for works  in the watershed programme is done through EFMS ( Electronic Fund Management System). For this purpose, one W.C.C (Watershed Computer Centre) is set up at head office of AF and  the WCC is linked  on line  to SLNA (State Level Nodal Agency) Hyderabad, from  where the payments will be made directly into bank accounts  of beneficiaries (Skilled & unskilled thorough  labour or suppliers) after thorough on line verification of muster rolls & M -  Book.  Through this  system, progress of works & expenditure  of each watershed is captured instantly by State Level  Nodal Agency every hour.

This  system is highly transparent with regard to financial  transactions of the programme as anybody  can have access to website  to know the implementation of the programme.

Table showing the expenditure particulars of IWMP watersheds as on 31-05-2016

S.N

Name of the watershed

Area planned for treatment (Ha)

Area treated

Expenditure

Rs.in lakhs

No.of farmers benefited

No.of labour families benefited

No.of person days of employment generated

1.

Muttala

2535

2535

638.14

1200

4598

342546

2.

B.M.palli

4942

2967

551.49

975

3538

295421

3.

Kuderu

4331

1879

431.63

630

2446

215022

 

Total

11808

7381

1621.26

2805

10582

852989

 

7. User Groups:

User groups of farmers within the watershed are formed to inculcate a sense  of ownership and responsibility among  smaller groups over the programme components. Farmers within an area of 100 to 120 Ac, are  formed into a group called “ User group” Sometimes affinity groups are also formed  who can take  up same type of activity (For example, Dry land horticulture , fodder development  etc.,) Each member of group will save  an amount  of atleast Rs.50/- per month.  The User Group members  meet regularly to discuss about the watershed works taken up within their  farm lands. The SLNA  sanctions matching grant to the user groups to take up purchase of implements, seed etc.,  The following table  gives the information of U.Gs and savings in Mega watersheds.

Sl.No

Name of Megawatershed

No.of U.G’S

1

Muttala

44

2

Bandameedapalli

45

3

Kuderu

98

 

Best performance PIA Award:

AF is implementing  the IWMP Projects giving high priority  to participatory approach. Recongnising the efforts of AF  in implementing the projects, the state level and district level administration awarded “ Best  Performance Award” consecutively,  from 2009 to 2012. Muttala watershed is a model watershed, which is being visited by many PIAs from across AP and Telangana States   in order to emulate the processes of participatory watershed development

8. Watershed Development Fund (WDF):

An amount equal to 5% of the total cost of the works taken up each in farmers land will be contributed by the farmer to WDF. This fund will remain with the WDC, which will be used for post project maintenance of the assets created.

9. Activities taken up under Watershed Development:

1. Entry Point Activity (EPA): The most commonly felt need of the community would be taken up as an EPA, like  access to safe drinking water n the village is one such activity. Water purification (Reverse Osmosis), plants are constructed in every watershed village. Along with water purification plants in all villages

Cattle water troughs are constructed to quench the thirst of animals and small ruminants.

The EPAs are to bring together different sections of people in a village and practice to take decisions in a participatory / consensus approach and also to bring the PIA and the village community on the same page.

2.Treatment of Ridge portions:

Continuous or staggered  contour trenches on ridge portions impound rain water to improve moisture in upland areas, and promote natural regeneration of vegetation, besides recharging ground water downstream side.

3.Afforestation in hillocks: Planting the upland hilly areas with fodder, fruit and drought hardy biomass species and conserving natural regeneration arrests soil erosion and serve as carbon sinks.

The commonly planted tree species are ______________________________

4. Treating the drainage lines : Treating the drainage lines with rock fill dams, Gabion structures, loose boulder structures across the first order streams to harvest and reduce the speed of water thus increasing base flows in the drainage system and preventing further deepening of gullies.

5. Farm Ponds: Farm Ponds are  constructed at the depression point of lowest contours in rain fed agricultural land holds in order to collect rain water which can be used to provide life saving irrigation to rain fed crops during the long dry spells. The inner sloping sides of the farm pond and the bottom are to be lined with cement mortar, in order to present seepage and store for longer period so that it can be used for life saving irrigation.

6.Dry land Horticulture (DLH) : It is an assured income yielding intervention in drought prone areas, like Anantapur district. Farmers in watershed villages have undertaken this activity in large extents of raifed areas.

7. Check Dams: Constructed across stream flows to impound rain water that can stay for 5 to 6 months. Check dams are very useful to increase ground water and rejuvenate the base flows in streams, during summer season. The bore wells in the vicinity of check dam are rejuvenated to give assured irrigation to crops.  The check dams are also providing water for cattle, wild animals, birds etc and for washing clothes.

8.Block plantations in village community lands: Block plantations are raised in village community lands they will increase the greenery and biomass and also help in mitigating the climate change. The plantations raised with species like jamun, neem, tamarind, will yield income to village panchayaths.

9.Percolation Tank: The percolation tanks are meant to harvest the rain water over a large area, and ground water recharge capability is very high. The bore wells situated in the influence zone of a percolation tank, yield ground water sustainably to irrigate the agricultural crops.

10. Raising of fodder Plots :  Raising fodder plots is one of the important activities. Many farmers with irrigation facility set apart at least 0.5 Ac. To 1 Ac. of land to grow fodder feed the milch animals, and other small ruminants, to promote milk production through raring of milch animals.

11.Livelihood Activities for the landless and poor: Landless and poor would undertake non-farm income generating activities like raring of milch animals , Auto transport, tailoring etc.,. There is is provision for landless poor to take up income generating activities under watershed development programme. Beneficiaries receive loan from a revolving livelihood fund and repay the same in equal monthly instalments with a nominal interest.

       

 

12. Productivity Systems Improvement (PSI ): Productivity Systems Improvement components include procuring farm implements like tillers, cultivators, grass cutting machines, sprayers, etc., Funds are earmarked towards subsidy(50%), and loan portion to provide farm implement packages to user groups, in coordination with A.P.Agro Industries corporation. Custom Hiring Centres are also established under PSI.

Table showing l particulars of ivelihood activities under IWMP watersheds

S.No.

Name of watershed

Livelihood amount released (Rs.)

Amount loaned (Rs.)

No. of Families covered

1.

Muttala

21,50200

2100000

140

2.

Bandameedapalli

29,99000

19,95000

133

3

Kuderu

18,00000

4,50000

18

 

Total

69,49,200

38,31000

291

Consolidated progress under IWMP watershed projects as on 31-05-2016

S.No

Activities

Beneficiaries

Extent  Ac/Rmts/Km

1

Boulder removal

4 Nos

4 Ac

2

Staggered Trenches

01 Nos

4 Ac

3

Water Absorption Trench

CPR

16000 Km(500 Ha)

4

Loose boulder Structures

1 Nos

1 Ac

5

Rock Fill dams

145 Nos

302 Mts (785 Ac)

6

Farm ponds

336 Nos

1750 Ac

7

Dugout ponds

381 Nos

2185 Ac

8

Percolation Tank

5 Nos

125 Ac

9

Check Walls

6 Nos

20 Ac

10

Check Dams

39 Nos

212 Ac

11

Repair of Existing P.T's

4 No

75 Ac

12

Desilting in Check Dams

01 No

5 Ac

13

Repair of Exisiting CD's

21 Nos

305 Ac

14

Avenue plantations

CPR

15 Km

15

Barren Hill Afforestation

CPR

5 Ac

16

Block Plantation

CPR

76 Ac

17

Nursery

CPR

78000 Nos

18

Dry Land Horticulture

1070 Nos

3630 Ac

19

Fodder Plots

68 Nos

34 Ac

 

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